It combines chance procedures, plotted perspective studies, and laborious craftsmanship. He published notes for the piece, The Green Box , intended to complement the visual experience. They reflect the creation of unique rules of physics, and a mythology which describes the work. He stated that his "hilarious picture" is intended to depict the erotic encounter between a bride and her nine bachelors.
A performance of the stage adaptation of Roussel 's novel Impressions d'Afrique, which Duchamp attended in , inspired the piece. Notes, sketches and plans for the work were drawn on his studio walls as early as In order to concentrate on the work free from material obligations, Duchamp found work as a librarian while living in France.
After immigrating to the United States in , he began work on the piece financed by the support of the Arensbergs. The piece is partly constructed as a retrospective of Duchamp's works, including a three-dimensional reproduction of his earlier paintings Bride , Chocolate Grinder and Glider containing a water mill in neighboring metals — , which has led to numerous interpretations.
The work was formally declared "Unfinished" in Returning from its first public exhibition in a shipping crate, the glass suffered a large crack. Duchamp repaired it, but left the smaller cracks in the glass intact, accepting the chance element as a part of the piece.
Joseph Nechvatal has cast a considerable light on The Large Glass by noting the autoerotic implications of both bachelorhood and the repetitive, frenetic machine; he then discerns a larger constellation of themes by insinuating that autoeroticsm — and with the machine as omnipresent partner and practitioner — opens out into a subversive pan-sexuality as expressed elsewhere in Duchamp's work and career, in that a trance-inducing pleasure becomes the operative principle as opposed to the dictates of the traditional male-female coupling; and he as well documents the existence of this theme cluster throughout modernism, starting with Rodin's controversial Monument to Balzac , and culminating in a Duchampian vision of a techno-universe in which one and all can find themselves welcomed.
Duchamp's interest in kinetic works can be discerned as early as the notes for The Large Glass and the Bicycle Wheel readymade, and despite losing interest in "retinal art," he retained interest in visual phenomena. The piece, which he did not consider to be art, involved a motor to spin pieces of rectangular glass on which were painted segments of a circle.
When the apparatus spins, an optical illusion occurs, where the segments appear to be closed concentric circles. Man Ray set up equipment to photograph the initial experiment, but when they turned the machine for the second time, a belt broke, and caught a piece of the glass, which after glancing off Man Ray's head, shattered into bits. This time the optical element was a globe cut in half, with black concentric circles painted on it.
When it spins, the circles appear to move backward and forward in space. Duchamp asked that Doucet not exhibit the apparatus as art. Rotoreliefs were the next phase of Duchamp's spinning works. To make the optical "play toys", he painted designs on flat cardboard circles and spun them on a phonographic turntable. When spinning, the flat disks appeared three-dimensional. He had a printer produce sets of six of the designs, and set up a booth at a Paris inventors' show to sell them.
The venture was a financial disaster, but some optical scientists thought they might be of use in restoring three-dimensional stereoscopic sight to people who have lost vision in one eye. Later, in Alexander Calder 's studio in , while looking at the sculptor's kinetic works, Duchamp suggested that these should be called " mobiles ".
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Calder agreed to use this novel term in his upcoming show. To this day, sculptures of this type are called "mobiles". Between and , Duchamp worked with various musical ideas. At least three pieces have survived: two compositions and a note for a musical happening. The two compositions are based on chance operations. Erratum Musical , written for three voices, was published in Erratum Musical is unfinished and was never published or exhibited during Duchamp's lifetime. According to the manuscript, the piece was intended for a mechanical instrument "in which the virtuoso intermediary is suppressed".
The manuscript also contains a description for "An apparatus automatically recording fragmented musical periods," consisting of a funnel, several open-end cars and a set of numbered balls. In , Duchamp and John Cage appeared together at a concert entitled "Reunion", playing a game of chess and composing Aleatoric music by triggering a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard.
The name, a pun , sounds like the French phrase Eros , c'est la vie , which may be translated as "Eros, such is life. Duchamp later used the name as the byline on written material and signed several creations with it. The sculpture, a type of readymade called an assemblage , consists of an oral thermometer , a couple of dozen small cubes of marble resembling sugar cubes and a cuttlefish bone inside a birdcage. Empowered by J. Morgan, and then by his son Jack, Greene built the collection buying and selling rare manuscripts , books and art. Duchamp said in an interview, "You think you're doing something entirely your own, and a year later you look at it and you see actually the roots of where your art comes from without your knowing it at all.
Note that the 'salt seller' aphorism — "mar-chand-du-sel" — is a phonetic rearrangement of the syllables in the artist's name: "mar-cel-du-champ. In , Duchamp took leave of the New York art scene, interrupting his work on the Large Glass , and went to Buenos Aires, where he remained for nine months and often played chess.
He carved his own chess set from wood with help from a local craftsman who made the knights. He moved to Paris in , and then back to the United States in Upon his return to Paris in , Duchamp was, in essence, no longer a practicing artist. Instead, his main interest was chess, which he studied for the rest of his life to the exclusion of most other activities. He designed the Poster for the Third French Chess Championship, and as a competitor in the event, finished at fifty percent 3—3, with two draws , earning the title of chess master. During this period his fascination with chess so distressed his first wife that she glued his pieces to the board.
Duchamp continued to play in the French Championships and also in the Chess Olympiads from to , favoring hypermodern openings such as the Nimzo-Indian. Sometime in the early s, Duchamp reached the height of his ability, but realized that he had little chance of winning recognition in top-level chess. In the following years, his participation in chess tournaments declined, but he discovered correspondence chess and became a chess journalist, writing weekly newspaper columns.
While his contemporaries were achieving spectacular success in the art world by selling their works to high-society collectors, Duchamp observed, "I am still a victim of chess. It has all the beauty of art—and much more. It cannot be commercialized. Chess is much purer than art in its social position. I have come to the personal conclusion that while all artists are not chess players, all chess players are artists.
This treatise describes the Lasker-Reichhelm position , an extremely rare type of position that can arise in the endgame. Using enneagram -like charts that fold upon themselves, the authors demonstrated that in this position, the most Black can hope for is a draw. The theme of the "endgame" is important to an understanding of Duchamp's complex attitude toward his artistic career.
Irish playwright Samuel Beckett was an associate of Duchamp, and used the theme as the narrative device for the play of the same name, Endgame. In , Duchamp played an artistically important chess match with avant-garde composer John Cage, at a concert entitled "Reunion".
Music was produced by a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard, triggered sporadically by normal game play. On choosing a career in chess, Duchamp said, "If Bobby Fischer came to me for advice, I certainly would not discourage him—as if anyone could—but I would try to make it positively clear that he will never have any money from chess, live a monk-like existence and know more rejection than any artist ever has, struggling to be known and accepted. Duchamp left a legacy to chess in the form of an enigmatic endgame problem he composed in The problem was included in the announcement for Julian Levi's gallery exhibition Through the Big End of the Opera Glass , printed on translucent paper with the faint inscription: "White to play and win".
Grandmasters and endgame specialists have since grappled with the problem, with most concluding that there is no solution. Although Duchamp was no longer considered to be an active artist, he continued to consult with artists, art dealers and collectors. From then until , together with Max Ernst , Eugenio Granell , and Breton, Duchamp edited the Surrealist periodical VVV , and served as an advisory editor for the magazine View , which featured him in its March edition, thus introducing him to a broader American audience.
Duchamp's influence on the art world remained behind the scenes until the late s, when he was "discovered" by young artists such as Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns , who were eager to escape the dominance of Abstract Expressionism. He was a co-founder of the international literary group Oulipo in Interest in Duchamp was reignited in the s, and he gained international public recognition. In , the Pasadena Art Museum mounted his first retrospective exhibition, and there he appeared in an iconic photograph playing chess opposite nude model Eve Babitz.
In the Tate Gallery hosted a large exhibit of his work. Other major institutions, including the Philadelphia Art Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art , followed with large showings of Duchamp's work. He was invited to lecture on art and to participate in formal discussions, as well as sitting for interviews with major publications. Duchamp participated in the design of the International Surrealist Exhibition, which was held at the Galerie des Beaux-arts , Paris.
The show featured more than 60 artists from different countries, including approximately paintings, objects, collages, photographs, and installations. In this way Duchamp confronted guests entering the exhibition, who were in full evening dress.
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Surrealist Street filled one side of the lobby with mannequins dressed by various surrealists. The main hall was a simulation of a dark subterranean cave with 1, empty coal bags suspended from the ceiling. The floor was covered by Paalen with dead leaves and mud from the Montparnasse Cemetery. In the middle of the grand hall underneath Duchamp's coal sacks, Paalen installed an artificial water-filled pond with real water lilies and reeds, which he called Avant La Mare. A single light bulb provided the only illumination,  so patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art an idea of Man Ray , while the aroma of roasting coffee filled the air.
Around midnight, the visitors witnessed the dancing shimmer of a scantily dressed girl who suddenly arose from the reeds, jumped on a bed, shrieked hysterically, then disappeared just as quickly. Much to the surrealists' satisfaction, the exhibition scandalized many of the guests.
He wove a three-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works. When the formally-dressed patrons arrived, they found a dozen children in athletic clothes kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope. When questioned, the children were told to say "Mr. Duchamp told us we could play here". Duchamp's design of the catalog for the show included "found", rather than posed, photographs of the artists.
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Throughout his adult life, Duchamp was a passionate smoker of Habana cigars. Duchamp became a United States citizen in It was rumored that Duchamp had chosen a marriage of convenience, because Sarazin-Lavassor was the daughter of a wealthy automobile manufacturer. Early in January , Duchamp said that he could no longer bear the responsibility and confinement of marriage, and they were soon divorced. Between and Maria Martins was his mistress. In , he and Alexina "Teeny" Sattler married. They remained together until his death. Duchamp's final major art work surprised the art world, which believed he had given up art for chess 25 years earlier.
The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas" , it is a tableau, visible only through a peep hole in a wooden door. The torso of the nude figure is based on Duchamp's lover, the Brazilian sculptor Maria Martins , with whom he had an affair from to Duchamp died suddenly and peacefully in the early morning of 2 October at his home in Neuilly-sur-Seine , France. Duchamp was an atheist. Many critics consider Duchamp to be one of the most important artists of the 20th century,      and his output influenced the development of post—World War I Western art. He advised modern art collectors, such as Peggy Guggenheim and other prominent figures, thereby helping to shape the tastes of Western art during this period.
Duchamp produced relatively few artworks and remained mostly aloof of the avant-garde circles of his time. He went on to pretend to abandon art and devote the rest of his life to chess, while secretly continuing to make art. The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act. Duchamp in his later life explicitly expressed negativity toward art. In a BBC interview with Duchamp conducted by Joan Bakewell in he compared art with religion, saying that he wished to do away with art the same way many have done away with religion.
Duchamp goes on to explain to the interviewer that "the word art etymologically means to do," that art means activity of any kind, and that it is our society that creates "purely artificial" distinctions of being an artist. A quotation erroneously attributed to Duchamp suggests a negative attitude toward later trends in 20th century art:. When I discovered the ready-mades I sought to discourage aesthetics. In Neo-Dada they have taken my readymades and found aesthetic beauty in them, I threw the bottle-rack and the urinal into their faces as a challenge and now they admire them for their aesthetic beauty.
However, this was written in by fellow Dadaist Hans Richter , in the second person, i. Although a marginal note in the letter suggests that Duchamp generally approved of the statement, Richter did not make the distinction clear until many years later. Pop Art is a return to "conceptual" painting, virtually abandoned, except by the Surrealists, since [Gustave] Courbet, in favor of retinal painting If you take a Campbell soup can and repeat it 50 times, you are not interested in the retinal image.
What interests you is the concept that wants to put 50 Campbell soup cans on a canvas. In , as a testimony to the legacy of Duchamp's work to the art world, a panel of prominent artists and art historians voted Fountain "the most influential artwork of the 20th century". Reproduced in Du "Cubisme". Marcel Duchamp, , La sonate Sonata , oil on canvas, Torrey home, c. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Duchamp disambiguation. Blainville-Crevon , France. Neuilly-sur-Seine , France. Main article: Nude Descending a Staircase, No. Main article: Readymades of Marcel Duchamp. Main article: The Large Glass.
Duchamp's Problem with White to play . Main article: List of works by Marcel Duchamp. Webster's New World College Dictionary. Oxford University Press, p. Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 8 May Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 8 May Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 12 May The Brooklyn Rail.
London: Walter Scott Publishing Co. Marcel Duchamp. Art as Anti-Art. Taschen Verlag. Taschen, p. New York: Viking Press. Accessed 15 December Alianza Forma. Art Science Research Laboratory. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 12 March What the hell am I doing with her? There was just pressure. She bought designer gowns for 10, dollars a pop and wore them only once. Early in his career. When they finally worked together, Brando let him have it. He also acknowledges something few actors do — that at the height of his popularity, he was often exactly as insufferable as the worst gossip has portrayed him.
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